- Overview of Personality Assessment
- Personality assessment
- Projective personality measures
- Understanding Personality Through Projective Testing - Steven Tuber - Google книги
Overview of Personality Assessment
Some therapists may use projective tests as a sort of icebreaker to encourage you to discuss issues or examine your thoughts and emotions. While projective tests have some benefits, they also have a number of weaknesses and limitations, including:. Despite these weaknesses, projective tests are still widely used by clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. Some experts suggest that the latest versions of many projective tests have both practical value and some validity.
Projective techniques are even used in market research to help identify deep emotions, associations, and thought processes related to specific products and brands. Some research suggests that projective tests such as the Rorschach may have value as supplementary assessments used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests to identify thought disorders and disabilities. Also, projective tests may hold value for their use as exploratory tools in psychotherapy. Have you ever wondered what your personality type means? Sign up to get these answers, and more, delivered straight to your inbox.
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What Is the Unconscious? How Attitudes Change and Influence Behaviors. The Rorschach Inkblot Test: This test was one of the first projective tests developed and continues to be one of the best-known and most widely used.
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Developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in , the test consists of 10 different cards that depict an ambiguous inkblot. You're shown one card at a time and asked to describe what you see in the image.
The responses are recorded verbatim by the tester. Gestures, the tone of voice, and other reactions are also noted.
Projective personality measures
The results of the test can vary depending on which of the many existing scoring systems the examiner uses. The Thematic Apperception Test TAT : In this test , you're asked to look at a series of ambiguous scenes and then to tell a story describing the scene, including what is happening, how the characters are feeling, and how the story will end.
The examiner then scores the test based on the needs, motivations, and anxieties of the main character, as well as how the story eventually turns out. The test interpreter might look at factors such as the size of particular parts of the body or features, the level of detail given to the figure, as well as the overall shape of the drawing.
Like other projective tests, the Draw-A-Person test has been criticized for its lack of validity. While a test interpreter might suggest that certain aspects of the drawing are indicative of particular psychological tendencies, many might argue that it simply means that the subject has poor drawing skills. The test has been used as a measure of intelligence in children, but research comparing scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence to the Draw-A-Person test found a very low correlation between the two scores.
Once the drawing is complete, you're asked a series of questions about the images you've drawn. The test was originally designed by John Buck and included a series of 60 questions to ask the respondent, although test administrators may also come up with their own questions or follow-up queries to further explore the subject's responses. For example, the test administrator might ask of the house drawing: "Who lives here?
The respondent's answers can be heavily influenced by the examiner's attitudes or the test setting. Scoring projective tests is highly subjective, so interpretations of answers can vary dramatically from one examiner to the next. Projective tests that do not have standard grading scales tend to lack both validity and reliability. Validity refers to whether or not a test is measuring what it purports to measure, while reliability refers to the consistency of the test results. Was this page helpful? Personality is interactional in two senses. As indicated above, personal characteristics can be thought of as products of interactions among underlying psychological factors; for example, an individual may experience tension because he or she is both shy and desirous of social success.
These products, in turn, interact with the types of situations people confront in their daily lives. A person who is anxious about being evaluated might show debilitated performance in evaluative situations for example, taking tests , but function well in other situations in which an evaluative emphasis is not present. Personality makeup can be either an asset or a liability depending on the situation. For example, some people approach evaluative situations with fear and foreboding, while others seem to be motivated in a desirable direction by competitive pressures associated with performance.
Efforts to measure personality constructs stem from a variety of sources. Frequently they grow out of theories of personality; anxiety and repression the forgetting of unpleasant experiences , for example, are among the central concepts of the theory of psychoanalysis.
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- How Projective Tests Are Used to Measure Personality!
Among the major issues in the study of personality measurement is the question of which of the many personality constructs that have been quantified are basic or fundamental and which can be expected to involve wasted effort in their measurement because they represent poorly defined combinations of more elemental constructs; which measurement techniques are most effective and convenient for the purpose of assessment; and whether it is better to interview people in measuring personality, or to ask them to say, for example, what an inkblot or a cloud in the sky reminds them of.
Efforts to measure any given personality construct can fail as a result of inadequacies in formulating or defining the trait to be measured and weaknesses in the assessment methods employed.
An investigator might desire to specify quantitatively the degree to which individuals are submissive in social and competitive situations. His effectiveness will depend on the particular theory of submissiveness he brings to bear on the problem; on the actual procedures he selects or devises to measure submissiveness; and on the adequacy of the research he performs to demonstrate the usefulness of the measure.
Each of these tasks must be considered carefully in evaluating efforts to measure personality attributes. The methods used in personality description and measurement fall into several categories that differ with regard to the type of information gathered and the methods by which it is obtained. While all should rely on data that come from direct observations of human behaviour if they are to have at least the semblance of scientific value, all may vary with regard to underlying assumptions, validity, and reliability consistency, in this case. Personality assessment psychology.
Written By: Irwin G.
Understanding Personality Through Projective Testing - Steven Tuber - Google книги
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