- History of New York (state)
- Knickerbocker's History of New York, Complete by Washington Irving - Full Text Free Book
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- Knickerbocker's History of New York, Complete
New York's population grew substantially during this century: from the first colonial census to the last , the province grew ninefold, from 18, to , New York played a pivotal role in the Revolutionary War.
History of New York (state)
The Act exacerbated the depression the province experienced after unsuccessfully invading Canada in Two powerful families had for decades assembled colony-wide coalitions of supporters. With few exceptions, men long associated with the DeLancey faction went along when its leadership decided to support the crown while members of the Livingston faction became Patriots . New York's strategic central location and port made it key to controlling the colonies.
The British assembled the century's largest fleet: at one point 30, British sailors and soldiers anchored off Staten Island. By January , he retained only a few outposts near New York City. The British held the city for the duration, using it as a base for expeditions against other targets.
Knickerbocker's History of New York, Complete by Washington Irving - Full Text Free Book
Had Gates not held, the rebellion might well have broken down: losing Saratoga would have cost the entire Hudson—Champlain corridor, which would have separated New England from the rest of the colonies and split the future union. Upon war's end, New York's borders became well—defined: the counties east of Lake Champlain became Vermont and the state's western borders were settled by Many Iroquois supported the British typically fearing future American ambitions.
Many were killed during the war; others went into exile with the British. Those remaining lived on twelve reservations ; by only eight reservations remained, all of which survived into the 21st century. The state adopted its constitution in April , creating a strong executive and strict separation of powers. It strongly influenced the federal constitution a decade later.
- Knickerbocker's History of New York, Complete by Washington Irving.
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Debate over the federal constitution in led to formation of the groups known as Federalists —mainly "downstaters" those who lived in or near New York City who supported a strong national government—and Antifederalists —mainly upstaters those who lived to the city's north and west who opposed large national institutions.
He published and wrote most of the series in New York City newspapers in support of the proposed United States Constitution. Antifederalists were not swayed by the arguments, but the state ratified it in In , New York City became the national capital and continued as such on and off until ; George Washington was inaugurated as the first President of the United States in front of Federal Hall in From statehood to , the Legislature frequently moved the state capital between Albany, Kingston , Poughkeepsie , and New York City.
Thereafter, Albany retained that role. In the early 19th century, New York became a center for advancement in transportation. In , Robert Fulton initiated a steamboat line from New York to Albany, the first successful enterprise of its kind. In the Erie Canal opened, securing the state's economic dominance. Its impact was enormous: one source stated, "Linking the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes, the canal was an act of political will that joined the regions of the state, created a vast economic hinterland for New York City, and established a ready market for agricultural products from the state's interior.
By this time, all counties and most municipalities had incorporated, approximately matching the state's is organized today. Advancing transportation quickly led to settlement of the fertile Mohawk and Gennessee valleys and the Niagara Frontier.
Buffalo and Rochester became boomtowns. Significant migration of New England "Yankees" mainly of English descent to the central and western parts of the state led to minor conflicts with the more settled "Yorkers" mainly of German, Dutch, and Scottish descent. The western part of the state grew fastest at this time.
By , New York was home to seven of the nation's thirty largest cities. During this period, towns established academies for education, including for girls. The western area of the state was a center of progressive causes, including support of abolitionism , temperance, and women's rights. Some supporters of abolition participated in the Underground Railroad , helping fugitive slaves reach freedom in Canada or in New York.
In addition, in the early s the state legislature and Governor William H. Seward expanded rights for free blacks and fugitive slaves in New York: in the legislature passed laws protecting the rights of African Americans against Southern slave-catchers. In Seward signed legislation to repeal a "nine-month law" that allowed slaveholders to bring their slaves into the state for a period of nine months before they were considered free. After this, slaves brought to the state were immediately considered freed, as was the case in some other free states. Seward also signed legislation to establish public education for all children, leaving it up to local jurisdictions as to how that would be supplied some had segregated schools.
Professional baseball later located its Hall of Fame in Cooperstown. Saratoga Race Course , an annual summer attraction in Saratoga Springs , opened in A war was not in the best interest of business, because New York had strong ties to the Deep South, both through the port of New York and manufacture of cotton goods in upstate textile mills. Half of New York City's exports were related to cotton before the war. Southern businessmen so frequently traveled to the city that they established favorite hotels and restaurants. Trade was based on moving Southern goods.
The city's large Democrat community feared the impact of Abraham Lincoln 's election in and the mayor urged secession of New York. By the time of the Battle of Fort Sumter , such political differences decreased and the state quickly met Lincoln's request for soldiers and supplies. Hundreds of thousands of New York's young men fought during the Civil War , more than any other Northern state. While no battles were waged in New York, the state was not immune to Confederate conspiracies, including one to burn various New York cities and another to invade the state via Canada.
In January , Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation , which freed the slaves in states that were still in rebellion against the union. In March , the federal draft law was changed so that male citizens between 20 and 35 and unmarried citizens to age 45 were subject to conscription. Antiwar newspaper editors attacked the law, and many immigrants and their descendants resented being drafted in place of people who could buy their way out. Democratic Party leaders raised the specter of a deluge of freed southern blacks competing with the white working class, then dominated by ethnic Irish and immigrants.
On the lottery's first day, July 11, , the first lottery draw was held.
On Monday, July 13, , five days of large-scale riots began, which were dominated by ethnic Irish, who targeted blacks in the city, their neighborhoods, and known abolitionist sympathizers. In the following decades, New York strengthened its dominance of the financial and banking industries. Manufacturing continued to rise: Eastman Kodak founded in in Rochester , General Electric in Schenectady , and Endicott-Johnson Shoe Company in the Triple Cities are some of the well-known companies founded during this period.
Buffalo and Niagara Falls attracted numerous factories following the advent of hydroelectric power in the area. Trade unions used political influence to limit working hours as early as At the same time, New York's agricultural output peaked. Focus changed from crop-based to dairy-based agriculture. The cheese industry became established in the Mohawk Valley. By , the state had more than , farms. Immigration increased throughout the latter half of the 19th century. Starting with refugees from the Irish potato famine in the s, New York became a prominent entry point for those seeking a new life in the United States.
Ellis Island opened in ,  and between and , most immigrants were German and Eastern European Jews, Poles, and other eastern and southern Europeans, including many Italians. By , New York City's population outnumbered that of London , making it the most populous city in the world.
By the early 20th century, the statue was regarded as the "Mother of Exiles"—a symbol of hope to immigrants.
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New York's political pattern changed little after the mid—19th century. New York City and its metropolitan area was already heavily Democrat; Upstate was aligned with the Republican Party and was a center of abolitionist activists. In the s, Democratic Tammany Hall became one of the most powerful and durable political machines in United States history. Boss William Tweed brought the organization to the forefront of city and then state politics in the s. Based on its command of a large population, Tammany maintained influence until at least the s.
Outside the city, Republicans were able to influence the redistricting process enough to constrain New York City and capture control of the Legislature in Both parties have seen national political success: in the 39 presidential elections between and , Republicans won 19 times and Democrats 20 times. By , New York was the richest and most populous state. Two years prior, the five boroughs of New York City became one city. The state was serviced by over a dozen major railroads and at the start of the 20th century and electric Interurban rail networks began to spring up around Syracuse , Rochester and other cities in New York during this period.
Democrats focused more on the benefits of progressivism for their own ethnic working class base and for labor unions. Democratic political machines, especially Tammany Hall in Manhattan, opposed woman suffrage because they feared that the addition of female voters would dilute the control they had established over groups of male voters. By the time of the New York State referendum on women's suffrage in , however, some wives and daughters of Tammany Hall leaders were working for suffrage, leading it to take a neutral position that was crucial to the referendum's passage.
Following a sharp but short-lived Depression at the beginning of the decade,  New York enjoyed a booming economy during the Roaring Twenties. The Securities and Exchange Commission opened in to regulate the stock market. His Temporary Emergency Relief Agency, established in , was the first work relief program in the nation and influenced the national Federal Emergency Relief Administration.
Roosevelt was elected President in in part because of his promises to extend New York—style relief programs across the country via his New Deal. New York manufactured 11 percent of total United States military armaments produced during the war  and suffered 31, casualties. For example, to overcome discriminatory labor practices, Governor Herbert H. Dewey signed the Ives—Quinn bill in , banning employment discrimination.
The G. Bill of , which offered returning soldiers the opportunity of affordable higher education, forced New York to create a public university system since its private universities could not handle the influx; the State University of New York was created by Governor Dewey in At its conclusion, the defense industry shrank and the economy shifted towards producing services rather than goods.
Returning soldiers disproportionately displaced female and minority workers who had entered the industrial workforce only when the war left employers no other choice. Many workers followed the jobs. The automobile accelerated this decentralization; planned communities like Levittown offered affordable middle-class housing. Larger cities stopped growing around Growth resumed only in New York City, in the s. Buffalo's population fell by half between and Reduced immigration and worker migration led New York State's population to decline for the first time between and California and Texas both surpassed it in population.
New York entered its third era of massive transportation projects by building highways , notably the New York State Thruway. The project was unpopular with New York City Democrats, who referred to it as "Dewey's ditch" and the "enemy of schools", because the Thruway disproportionately benefited upstate. The highway was based on the German Autobahn and was unlike anything seen at that point in the United States.
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Nelson Rockefeller was governor from to and changed New York politics. He began as a liberal, but grew more conservative: he limited SUNY 's growth, responded aggressively to the Attica Prison riot , and promulgated the uniquely severe Rockefeller Drug Laws. The state took substantial budgetary control, which eventually led to improved fiscal prudence. New York remained one of the most liberal states.
Knickerbocker's History of New York, Complete
In the late 20th century, telecommunication and high technology industries employed many New Yorkers. New York City was especially successful at this transition. Entrepreneurs created many small companies, as industrial firms such as Polaroid withered. This success drew many young professionals into the still—dwindling cities. New York City was the exception and has continued to draw new residents.
The energy of the city created attractions and new businesses. Some people believe that changes in policing created a less threatening environment; crime rates dropped, and urban development reduced urban decay. This in turn led to a surge in culture. New York City became, once again, "the center for all things chic and trendy".
Immigration to both the city and state rose. New York City increased its already large share of television programming, home to the network news broadcasts, as well as two of the three major cable news networks. Upstate did not fare as well as downstate; the major industries that began to reinvigorate New York City did not typically spread to other regions. The E-mail Address es you entered is are not in a valid format.
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