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Devil Takes A Bride. Book 5. Celebrated storyteller Gaelen Foley brings her craft to new heights with Devil Takes a Bride, the seductive tale of a man bent on revenge and the beauty who teaches him to love again. Devlin Kimball, Lord Strathmore, has spent years adventuring on the high seas, struggling to make his peace with the tragedy that claimed the lives of his family. But now he has uncovered the dark truth behind the so-called accident and swears retribution. Her passionate nature rivals his own.

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Do emigrants have a direct say in the very institutions that are supposed to serve them? In which quality are emigrants represented in their state of origin? Are there any other channels for their representation? How do states of origin try to aid their emigrants to live more fulfilling transnational lives? During the last decade, more and more studies have dealt with the different policies by which countries around the world seek to engage emigrants in their economic, social, and political life.

Studies on the engagement policies of states of origin with their emigrants differ in the range of cases they cover; the number and kinds of policies they consider relevant; and, most significantly, in the theoretical insights they apply. Some attempts at explanation rest on a shaky foundation of either methodological nationalism -a much dreaded practice in the transnationalism literature since its beginnings2- or of classic realism in International Relations, attributing clear unity and intentionality to the state.

Despite these risks, however, many profound studies have shown convincingly in the last years that the state does play a key role in innovating new forms of establishing membership with emigrants and in encouraging and modeling the transnational action of migrants. Transnational Ties? We think that before we apply a theoretical lens, thereby reducing our field of vision, it is imperative to develop a rigorous conceptualization of emigrant policies and to conduct a broad, yet structured survey of the emigrant policies that are indeed adopted in a region.

Such is the aim of this book. This region is perfect to develop such a survey because it is a region where some of the most expansive emigrant policy trends are observable: there are states potentially bidding for more nationals as they reach out to people who are not currently their nationals, but who, on the base of their ancestors, could potentially make nationality claims; there are states that reach out to their emigrants regardless of whether they have travel documents or not, and whether they arrived at their destination or are still in transit.

Studies focusing on Latin America and the Caribbean have shown that this region is a space for experimentation and innovation regarding emigrant policies. In this book we include countries of net immigration, such as Costa Rica; countries of net emigration, such as El Salvador; and also cases characterized by quite complex migration profiles that include significant flows of refugee, transit, and return migration, such as Colombia or Ecuador.

The cases we cover have different profiles as states of origin: from diaspora communities formerly characterized by a strong exile component, as in Argentina, Chile, and Cuba; to those characterized by flight from armed conflict, generalized violence, and poverty, such as Colombia or El Salvador. Their emigrant populations of these countries are also distributed quite differently in the world: from those very disperse as Uruguayans, to those quite concentrated in one country, as Central Americans in the USA.

Our wish is that this effort can be further adapted and expanded in the future to cover other regions as well. Main Contributions of this Book This book brings the advances made in the comparative study of emigrant policies across regions7 to a region for which a study of a comprehensive comparative scope has been lacking. Undoubtedly, our effort stands on the shoulders of pioneer studies on emigrant policies in some Latin American countries that relate mostly to economic and political dimensions.

This line of research, which tends to be qualitative, has deepened our knowledge of the development of emigrant policies, even concretely on Latin American cases. The second type of research concentrates on comparative studies that register the adoption of a set of emigrant policies in a large-N sample of states, providing a systematic framework for their study.

Our book draws upon the knowledge generated by these previous lines of research by providing qualitative information about multidimensional emigrant policies across quite a large number of cases. For every country, we describe which emigrant policies have been adopted and what are the characteristics of those policies. For instance, when recording the existence of advisory board of emigrant affairs, we provide information regarding the electoral system and competences. At the same time, by comparing 22 countries through a systematic data-collection and a straightforward analytical framework, we are also able to overcome the limitations of previous small-N studies that tended to highlight and focus on different policies for each case.

We hope that our book will also serve the policy community by providing broad, precise, and transparent information on the emigrant policies of Latin American and Caribbean states. This should allow for evidence-based policymaking, invite cooperation and exchange of good practices across consular services, and even evaluations for separate countries taking this effort as the starting point to keep collecting evidence on policy in the future. In addition to this, the information provided in this book aims to enhance the transparency of the Emigrant Policies Index EMIX , developed by our research team at the German Institute of Global and Area Studies over the last two years.

The data contained in this book will allow scholars working in the future with the EMIX to assess the codification choices made by our team. In this way, codification and quantification will enter the picture after having framed the concepts. Setting up a common ground for the study of the emigrant policies adopted by the states in our sample has been possible thanks to an intensive exercise of conceptualization and operationalization that we consider to be one of the key contributions of this book.

We now turn to those methodological and conceptual contributions. The Methodology behind this Book The present book is embedded in a larger mixed-methods research project aiming to provide new insights on how and why states actively adopt policies to engage with their citizens abroad, and how this interaction impacts the politics and polities of the countries of origin. The first, key question of this research project was purely descriptive: How do states in Latin America and the Caribbean reach out to their emigrants?

This book is the result of thoroughly answering that first question, which required nothing less than a comprehensive survey of emigrant policies. To do that survey, however, we needed to define emigrant policies in a way that was broad enough to cover as much of the phenomenon as possible, yet concise regarding its attributes; in other words, a concept with proper connotations and denotations.

This conceptual effort developed at the same time as we began to preliminarily survey and pilot data collection. This simultaneity assures that we collect as many emigrant policies as possible under our definition, and also trained us in observing emigrant policies under the same understanding. The detailed process of this concurrent development of definitions and a data collection tool merits some more lines, as it might be of methodological worth.

To accomplish the first goal of reaching a definition of emigrant policies, we relied on the work done by pioneers of the literature, especially on crosscase comparative studies, but also on deeper case studies, as portrayed above. Next, we completed a thorough review of neighboring policy fields that are connected to the topic of emigrant policies, such as immigration and immigrant integration policy e. Next, we developed a first version of a data collection tool a questionnaire we would fill out when collecting information and piloted it on three cases with different migration profiles.

Our experience with this pilot collection led to dropping some dimensions that were empty and adding new ones that we had not considered previously. Once we had a final version of the data collection tool included for purposes of transparency in the Appendix of this book , we embarked on the task of training a small group of researchers of different nationalities to develop expertise in the general topic and help us collect the data. In contrast to other collection efforts that rely on experts paid or unpaid , we relied on a small team that learned together to collect data from similar sources and understand the questions in the data-collection in the same manner.

Our team worked together in the same place over a long period: over 20 months spanning from June to January In this period, we consulted experts mostly consular personnel in embassies of the countries we studied or bureaucrats in the state of origin only to clarify issues and to verify that the policies we had found were still valid. This system assured high coherence in the process: We not only had shared standards of what we were collecting, but we had the chance to hold three workshops along the process to discuss doubts; for example, when the data did not seem to perfectly fit the questions or seemed to fit several.

The next steps were the systematization of data and their ordering into categories to be reported in country reports the chapters of this book. To properly reflect the simultaneity of this data-collection method with the process of conceptualization, we proceed, in the next subsections, to introduce the definition of emigrants, policies and emigrant policies; characterize the data, and the emigrant policy dimensions we found. Emigrant: by emigrants we mean persons who have left the territory of their state of origin, be it because they reside abroad or because they are in transit, with or without travel documents, and also those who, by virtue of their belonging to an emigrant community e.

Emigrant policies: by emigrant policies we mean policies that states develop specifically to establish a new relationship towards, or keep links with, their emigrants. We consider these emigrant policies as those that surpass the traditional interpretations of consular tasks as defined by the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.

We exclude from this definition —and from our data collection and reporting - immigration policies in states of residence, and emigration policies of the states of origin. To put it another way, emigrant policies are a subset of migrant policies policies that consider emigrants and immigrants and are different from emigration policies, although there might be slight overlaps, such as when the same policy regulates the manner of exit of emigrants by making the kind of exit a precondition of the enjoyment of emigrant policies e.

This means that unless immigration policies in the receiving countries or emigration policies of the origin country prove central and connected to understanding the development of emigrant policies, they remain tangential to our research aims. In general, we include general information about migration profiles including immigration only in the introductions to the country chapters, when they are relevant to the context of emigrant policies. Policy: we understand policy to be a course of action usually, though not necessarily e.

While some researchers consider that programmatic rhetoric is also policy as when policies are derived from discourse , we try to find evidence. For reasons of feasibility given our time and financial constraints and transparency, we focus on policies that are endorsed and can be traced in official documents laws, decrees, regulatory, and programmatic documents and on national policies that constitute a directive of actions foreseen to be implemented by consulates even if these are not planned for implementation in all consulates.

For some federal cases, we included information on subnational emigrant policies merely for purposes of illustrating the range of variation in a multilevel perspective. However, this information is in no way comprehensive. In the case of policies administered by consulates, we collected data on those that have some general character which is the rule for those dictated from above in the central consular hierarchy or at least that were applied in several consulates which left room to observe policies that could be arising bottom-up from consulates and diffused across local levels. We try not to conflate policy outcomes and policy outputs by focusing on binding policies and laws that are in force.

Traditional public policy studies look at the policy cycle basically in terms of design, enactment, content, and implementation. We were especially interested in the first three, not on implementation or the larger consequences of policies. We were interested in learning how states develop linkages to their emigrants through policies. This poses the challenge of determining whether these policies can be called state policies, which implies that they have earned a place in the structures of the state, instead of being merely government policies.

Without a longitudinal perspective, this is a problem that cannot be fully solved. Still, taking this limitation into account, we found two ways to address this problem. First, regarding the kind of policies, we gathered information on policies in force that seemed to be either anchored in practice by law, or which had been applied as routine already. This means that we excluded policies that were one-time events. We looked for policies that are part of stable, long-term strategies, and that, if not strictly permanent, are at least meant to be recurrent and therefore likely to follow 15 For a similar take, see Helbling et al.

Given the limited timeframe of data collection, this does not completely exclude policies that are recently adopted and backed by official documents but may disappear with new governments, and thus only partially solves the problem of determining whether they are meant to become state policies or not. Time will have the last word about this and is the strongest reason why we invite scholars to take up the framework proposed here and to continue collecting data about emigrant policies. The second, more inventive strategy to address the issue was to collect information on the bureaucratic structures that states have created in order to anchor them as a policymaking area in their public administration.

We understand that this will help us not only to get an idea of the reality of emigrant policies beyond official documents i. Related to this, we want to address here the critique that emigrant policies are mostly symbolic, by which it is meant that these policies mainly are designed to send a message or represent a new relation with emigrants, rather than substantially change anything in the relation between states and emigrants.

For us, it is clear that the sheer variety of emigrant policies that we document in this book i. Beyond that, however, we disagree that emigrant policies are purely symbolic: even if they have still to survive the test of time and the passage of governments, the policies we describe in this volume represent too great an investment in terms of human and financial resources as to be called symbolic. Moreover, our reason to reject calling emigrant policies altogether symbolic is that there is also a symbolic aspect of emigrant policies, directed specifically to strengthening feelings of belonging between the society in the state of origin and emigrants around the world.

Another two interconnected caveats relate to the limitation of a remote data collection to make sure that all policies are covered and that the quality of the sources is consistent. As the data was collected by our team in Berlin, we only had access to evidence that could be found via Internet. We cannot rule out that policies exist that may perhaps be even documented officially, but about which there is no report in online sources no website, no news on it, no cross-reference to other online documents, no appearance in legal databases or diaries and thus could not be detected by our team.

We are aware that this might be the case in some smaller countries included in our book that do not invest heavily in their internet presence. Related to this, we aimed to collect data from sources in the following order: constitutions, legal data-. For some smaller countries, however, the limitations of their own state online presence e. We compensated this lesser reliability of the sources by consulting and confirming our information with consular personnel by phone or personal interviews.

Finally, a caveat about the comprehensiveness of our effort is in line. We aimed to reach a balance between breadth and depth of data collection. In determining this balance, we gave priority to providing an account that is systematic and thorough, but not always exhaustive for each case. Particularly, our volume aims to strike a balance offering the advantage of a systematic framework for comparison between all the cases covered and the breadth of categories and raw information within a framework that is manageable for later inter-regional comparisons.

It is relevant to note this because there is great variation in the number of emigrant policies across cases. This means that there was plenty of information from all kinds of sources for some cases, such as Mexico or Colombia, which have not only one, but several policies under each dimension and sometimes even multilevel. In others, such as Panama, there was considerably less information to collect. Compared to the richness and depth of some case-studies on Mexico, our volume presents abridged information on its multilevel emigrant policies, but compared to the lack of studies on Panama, our volume presents plenty of information that so far has been ignored.

We are well aware that subnational polities are not only active in developing emigrant policies, but can even be the pioneers of many important emigrant policies that only later are adopted at the national level. Outline of the Book The structure of this book is simple. After this introductory chapter, the reader will find 22 chapters for each one of the countries covered, in alphabetic order.

Chapters vary in length, reflecting the policies we found under each dimension. Each of the chapters has a short introduction that contains information about the migration profile of the country, with special focus on the emigrant population, the recent history of emigrant policies, and a general characterization of the case in terms of the dimensions of emigrant policies. Each chapter ends with its own list of primary legal references and other references. We then move on to describing which policies could be found under each of the dimensions we consider.

Finally, the book closes with an Appendix that contains our data collection tool. Having set our definitions, caveats, limitations, and the outline of the book, we can present the characterization of the 10 dimensions of emigrant policies, and the 2 dimensions of structures for emigrant policy administration we found to exist across Latin America and the Caribbean Table 1. Emigrant policies Citizenship is the central dimension by which states reach out to their emigrants: They are the channel trough which states offer emigrants formal membership in the national community and regulate the exclusivity and conditions of that membership.

These are voting rights passive and active that non-resident nationals may exercise. The franchise of emigrant citizens is not only quite different from the franchise rights of resident citizens, but can be quite different across cases that formally allow their citizens abroad to participate politically. Again connected to the possibilities to participate politically from abroad, but different from the mere regulation of franchise rights, a different dimension of policies is evolving regarding the regulation of political competition.

Although the degree of involvement of emigrants in the formal channels of participation of the state of origin is best and most directly observable through their access to suffrage, the electoral regulations for their voting do not tell the whole story. To understand their participation, it is necessary to see how the state regulates the reach of political competition of parties beyond borders, particularly whether they are allowed to recruit members, organize assemblies with emigrants, and campaign abroad and with which funding.

Giving emigrants a formal voice in politics through extending them formal political rights expresses serious attempts of states to include their voices in policymaking. However, there is also a dimension of policies being developed to include their voice in forums that vary in degrees of formality, represent emigrants according to different criteria, and that are meant to be close to sites of policymaking. For lack of a better term, we call this institutional participation in this book.

These bodies have assumed three forms according to the level in which they are set: at the national level, located abroad often connected to the consulate jurisdictions , or combining these two. Furthermore, these bodies have varying competencies and autonomy. Table 1: Emigrant policy dimensions covered in this book. Distinction between nationality and citizenship exists or not Dual nationality allowed for whom, until which generation, tolerable for all countries or only some, tolerable for naturalized citizens or not Nationality loss losing nationality if residence abroad and whether it is different for nationals by origin or naturalized citizens Citizenship loss citizen rights suspended, restricted partially or absolutely if residence abroad and whether there is a difference for dual national citizens.

Active voting rights for emigrants for which elections, conditions for voting, voting methods available, registration method, specific mode of representation Passive voting rights for which elections, under which mode of representation. SO regulation of party offices, campaigns financial support abroad, and party membership open for emigrants or not. Consultative bodies to represent emigrants at national and consular level existence, rank, composition, leadership, force and mandate. Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales External administration: Consular network, new consular functions and extended services.

Government programs to attract remittances improving banking channels, controlling fees, co-development schemes, programs for private investments Return policies clarity and speediness of a process of recognition of qualifications, tax exemptions for return, re-integration programs SO Brain gain programs for emigrants and brain circulation networks. Military service if exists, the difference vis-a-vis resident citizens Social service if exists, the difference vis-a-vis resident citizens Taxes obligation to declare despite non-residence, special taxes.

Awards for emigrants regular or eventual Reference to emigrants in constitution National level conferences to discuss contributions of emigrants Communication campaigns to reinforce sentiment of belonging National day devoted to emigrants New symbolic territorial entity. Some of the most studied emigrant policies relate to an economic policy dimension, as states develop policies to foster the economic ties of non-residents with the state.

The best studied economic policies in this dimension are those that foster and facilitate remittance sending, but also include policies that foster investment schemes for emigrants from abroad, or co-investment schemes where emigrants and the state of origin each contribute a part for projects of infrastructure and community development. There is a vast assortment of policies regarding remittances alone.

States open special banking. There is a rich literature on the use of remittances, their effects on development, political behavior, social, and gender relations. However, the effects on gender and parental relations, inequality in the local context and sustainable development in general are very limited, and may be negative. Moreover, the skill acquisition of emigrants is more likely to unfold productively if there are schemes in place that allow them to put their skills to use in economic activities readily upon return, through job placement policies or recognition of titles and professions.

We take these into account as well. The self-enterprising logic of the network model has resonated well in Mexico, Central America, and Chile. Lessons from Latin America. Very few countries in the world oblige their emigrants to file tax declarations, fulfill military service or social service if they reside and earn their living somewhere else. Moreover, Latin American and Caribbean states have few resources to enforce obligations outside their territorial boundaries.

Nevertheless, some have found a way to promote the fulfillment of reduced military and social service, in case emigrants wish to return, and probably also to emphasize the civic contract with emigrants in similar terms to resident citizens. Emigrant policies also have a cultural dimension.

More by Mary Balogh

These are usually within or contiguous to embassies, and even receive partial funding from the states of origin. Such institutes have a mixed target population, and do not only target emigrants, thus do not fall strictly within our definition of emigrant policies. However, some states of Latin America and the Caribbean also develop emigrant policies that are specifically cultural policies in the form of programs conducted by its consular network and sometimes channel to those houses or institutes, as in Brazil.

Connected to the possibilities of return, and to the very right to migrate, it is important to remember that emigrant policies are not the same as emigration policies. The latter regulate the conditions of the prospective outflow of people who are still in the territory; the former, the rights, duties, and participation rights of emigrants who are already abroad. These take the form of communication campaigns to inform citizens in the country, in transit, and in destination countries about their rights and duties as migrants and about safe routes and emergency resources.

Some of the most impressive new developments in the field of emigrant policies have taken place in the wide field of what in the trans-Atlantic and European literature would be considered welfare state policies. We especially follow the national regulations that allow emigrants to contribute remotely or be registered for the first time in the social security systems of their countries of origin. Complementarily, we note whether they are signatories of bilateral or multilateral conventions on social security. The broadest of these merit being mentioned here. This is a fundamental tool for the protection of migrant workers and their families, which builds on the existing social security regulations of each country regarding retirement, pension, work accidents, illnesses and disabilities due to work-related reasons, such that periods of contributions made in the countries involved also count in the others.

This agreement serves as a minimum normative basis for workers of the signatory countries, so that if there are more generous bilateral agreements, they apply first. Workers and their dependents that are registered in one of the ratifying Member States are entitled to benefits paid by the social security schemes in the countries in which they have contributed, with some limitations only contributory pensions for invalidity, disability, old age, and death are covered. As we mentioned above, an important reason to avoid characterizing emigrant policies tout court as symbolic is that there are some specifically symbolic policies.

Beyond a general rhetoric that extols the virtues of emigrants before the resident population, symbolic policies that merit such a name can be quite tangible. In order to make emigrant policies plausible generally as something beyond paper, states must upgrade their bureaucratic instruments and create implementing capacity in order to extend all of these policies as to cover people who are spread around the world.

These are the reasons why we consider two dimensions of emigrant policies that are related to administration. Taking into Account the Administration of Emigrant Policies at Home and Abroad States have created a wide range of new bodies in their bureaucratic structure to administer emigrant policies. Consulates have traditionally been the structure in charge of administering and executing tasks of attention, assistance, and protection of the citizenry of a state beyond its borders.

It is important to consider the size and dispersion of the consular networks as a basic parameter that should help future researchers in determining whether states have updated these networks to adapt to their emigration trends. But we have established above that emigrant policies, by definition, go beyond the traditional tasks of consular protection. Thus, it is important to see whether consulates have been upgraded to provide new services and capacities to put in practice emigrant policies.

Sometimes they are adopted by higher levels and harmonized horizontally, but many times they remain as special policies that have a trans-local character, connecting the local communities at origin and destination. As explained above, in this book we focus national-level emigrant polices and this applies as well to home and external administration. There are varying degrees of decentralization in the consular networks across countries, which allow different degrees of policy innovation to be developed by consulates, and which also permit diffusion at the local level across consulates of different states.

In other words, we are aware that not all policies developed at the local level ascend to the national or even pass through the center as they spread from local space to local space, even in the destination country. It is obvious that consular networks are still always subordinate to central organization by the home state: This is what we call home administration. The home administration dimension of emigrant policies captures the overall bureaucratic structure to deal with emigrant policies by creating new units that may vary in rank, task, and autonomy.

In Latin America, we find a wide range of structures that present whole networks of bureaucratic bodies: from new ministries, inter-ministerial coordinating agencies, vice-ministries, and autonomous bodies. To report on these structures in a comparative framework, we took into account the number of administrative bodies in charge of emigrant bodies, the rank of the body that is mostly concerned with emigrant policies in the public administration,27 and we differentiated the functions of the bodies between design or inter-ministerial coordination.

These bodies may have also some overlaps with consultative bodies. Where that seemed to be the case, we noted it. A Comparative View of Emigrant Policies across Latin America and the Caribbean The figure below is an example of the observations that the data contained in this book allows researchers of comparative emigrant policies to make.

While this does not represent any normative evaluation of the quality of policies, it does show the importance that emigrant policies have across different dimensions in different countries. For instance, the gradient indicates that Brazil combines emigrant policies across all dimensions with a particularly dense configuration of policies in the realms 27 We consider the following order for comparison: 1.

Vice-ministries e. General Directorates, 4.

Vanity Fea: The Garrick Years

In the case of autonomous agencies, we seek their rank equivalence to this order. This is accompanied by a strong capacity to implement these policies in its internal bureaucratic structure and through its traditionally large consular network. Mexico comes second, having developed emigrant policies for all areas, but weaker policies regarding the institutional participation of emigrants than Brazil.

Ecuador is next, with the strongest development of home administration structures to deal with emigrant policies in the whole region. If instead of countries we look at emigrant policy dimensions focusing on the horizontal axis , we see that citizenship is the main area in which emigrant policies have developed, surprisingly followed by social policies which suggests a significant spillover of basic state welfare functions beyond borders and by special home structures created to administer these.

Policy challenges and lessons for other regions Emigrant policies such as those developed by Latin American and Caribbean states over the past years present challenging scenarios for policymaking. Moreover, with emigrants, the degree of complexity is higher because policies for emigrants cover dimensions that in domestic politics are usually separated, but which must be interconnected in order to reach populations abroad effectively. With this book, we hope that we have delineated a broad horizon for the further study of the different emigrant policy configurations and their implications.

We invite academics and policy experts to take this as an invitation to scrutinize further, in more regions, and to re-collect data along these dimensions in the future. Bearing in mind that the point of view of this research is very state-centric which was not a matter of normative preferences of the authors, but of a particular contribution to a literature in development , we also invite readers to enrich this perspective by providing a critical view of these developments, and fuller accounts of social initiatives and responses to them. Beyond the academic and policymaking world, we wish that emigrants and civil society activists who work on migration issues in Latin America and the Caribbean will also be among the readers of this book.

The rich catalogue of policies in it might help them to put their cases in perspective and inform their agendas. Finally, we hope that the overlap of these social and academic agendas will allow us to understand better the instruments that can help migrants enjoy more fulfilling transnational lives and benefit societies rather than states of origin and residence.

References Adams Jr. Adida, Claire L. Remittances and Access to Public Services in Mexico, Burgess, Katrina. Los migrantes mexicanos ante las primeras elecciones en el exterior. Luis Mora. Collyer, Michael, and Zana Vathi. Conway, Dennis, and Jeffrey H. Delano, Alexandra. The Role of the Sending State. Cambridge University Press. Duany, Jorge. Sufragio transnacional y extraterritorial. UAM Iztapalapa. Emmerich, Norberto. Escobar, Cristina. Remittances and Development. Washington, D. Gamlen, Alan. Vaaler, and Laura Rossouw.

Paper Gerring, John. Goldring, Luin. Hoffmann, Bert. Hoyo, Henio. Iskander, Natasha Nefertiti. Cornell University Press. Kapur, Devesh. Koslowski, Rey. International Migration and the Globalization of Domestic Politics. London; New York: Routledge. Lafleur, Jean-Michel. Comparative Insights from Mexico, Italy and Belgium. Transnational Politics and the State. The External Voting Rights of Diasporas. Abingdon: Routledge. Margheritis, Ana.

The Vicissitudes of Emigration Policy in the s. Migration Governance across Regions. New York: Routledge.

  • A City of Secrets (The Island Trinity Book 1).
  • A Days Work;
  • See a Problem?.

Naujoks, Daniel. Changing Research and Policy Paradigms. Newland, Kathleen. Orozco, Manuel. Springer International Publishing. Ragazzi, Francesco. Migrations in. Revista Seguridad Social Activa - Internacional. Sartori, Giovanni. Sassen, Saskia. Smith, Robert C. Torres Mendivil, Reyna. Vonk, Olivier Willem. Nationality Law in the Western Hemisphere. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff. However, following the return to democracy in the s and particularly after the recent economic crisis in Spain an important destination , Argentines living abroad are returning.

These two institutions do not seem to coordinate their actions, given that their policies overlap and often contradict one another. There are no legal obstacles to dual nationality; individuals are allowed to have other nationalities without losing the Argentine one. Argentina understands double nationality as unequal nationalities; one full nationality for the country of permanent residence and another dormant nationality of lower importance. Meanwhile, if one decides to take up permanent residence in Argentina, the Argentine nationality becomes the dominant one.

They may even enter or leave national territory with their non-Argentine passport, provided they can prove to be Argentine as well. While the Nationality Law establishes that all children of native Argentines can choose to become native Argentines themselves,9 this choice is neither extended to further generations nor to spouses.

According to the Nationality Law, Argentine citizens cannot lose their nationality. Voting is compulsory for all Argentines, as established by the National Electoral Code. This suggests that registered non-residents are not required to justify their absence at all. In theory, non-resident citizens have candidacy rights. The Constitution establishes that potential congressmen or women must be over 25, be Argentine citizens for over four years and either born in the province they aim to represent or resident in said province for the previous two years.

However, there is no residence requirement. They can also run for the Congress and the Senate, as long as they were born in the provinces they aim to represent. However, Emmerich has argued that the legislation regulating the rights of non-resident voters only allows voting in national elections and not electoral candidacy. Non-resident citizens enrolled in the Registry for Voters Abroad can only vote in the embassy or consulate where they are registered.

Registration is automatic in the case of in-country voting. They can register online or at the nearest consular office. If the last district of residence cannot be established, the district of birth will be considered. In case this 23 Ibid. Though there are bills proposing the creation of a new electoral district, with five seats in the Chamber of Deputies representing non-resident voters, such bills have not been passed.

There is no specific regulation for external party offices, suggesting that they are neither officially envisioned nor explicitly forbidden. The form can be presented to electoral authorities, to the party administration or the local post office. In truth, however, emigrant membership is neither mentioned by the Law for Political Parties, nor by the multiple party programs since Argentina is a highly decentralized state, so parties have different programs in every province.

According to the national guidelines established by the Justicialist Party Partido Justicialista , for example, all members are entitled to be a candidate for posts within the party, though priority is given to minorities. Argentina has a total of diplomatic representations in 87 countries,36 divided as follows: 87 embassies, 23 consulates, 37 consulates general and 8 centers of commercial promotion.

Mobile consulates also exist,37 whereas online or weekend services do not. Argentine consulates do not provide legal, financial or psychological consultancy. Argentina has two bodies for the administration of emigrant policies at home. One is a the Directorate of Argentines Abroad, which is subordinate to the General Directorate of Consular Affairs within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, thus with the fourth rank in public administration The main objective of this directorate is allegedly the support of non-resident Argentines, particularly in case of detention, disease, or death.

Still, the directorate does not even have its own web page, though it was created in The other body, of which its permanence could not be verified, was created at the subnational level, again revealing the high decentralization of Argentina. It also aims to accelerate procedures related to emigrants. Again, no official information is available on. Moreover, according to Novick,39 work with emigrants was interrupted shortly after the center was founded.

The government is committed to signing international treaties that allow emigrants to send remittances to their relatives living on Argentine soil. The program allows non-resident Argentines to open a bank account at the Banco Provincia de Buenos Aires. The emigrant is expected to be the account holder and the relatives in Argentina are expected to be co-holders, as the program is guided by the principle of family assistance.

As established by the Law on Foreign Investment, a foreign investor is any physical or legal person residing outside the national territory. Though there are government strategies to attract investments from foreigners, 46 none targets Argentine emigrants in particular. Additionally, it promotes Argentine research abroad, coordinates return policies and integrates foundations and NGOs into its work.

In both cases, the country adheres to the Apostille Convention, an international treaty that recognizes all public documents emitted by state signatories. If Argentina has signed an agreement with the country and a commission of experts is not necessary, recognition will take between six and 12 months. In Argentina, obligatory military service was abolished in In this case, the Executive may request authorization from the Legislative to draft citizens turning 18 in that particular year. Judging by the lack of legislation on this matter, non-resident Argentines do not have to pay taxes in Argentina.

Additionally, the Argentine Migration Law states that every Argentine living abroad for over two years and who decides to return to Argentina is allowed to bring his property, free of tax. These centers are neither managed nor funded by the Argentine state. Interestingly, the campaign is run by the Ministry of the Interior, instead of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

No information campaigns to discourage emigration exist. Emigration is a right and consequently we have created an association program, convinced as we are that people will return due to the improvements in living standards that began in According to the Migration Law, the Argentine government may sign agreements with states in which Argentines reside in order to provide them equal or similar labor rights and social security in their country of residence.

Paying agreements have also been signed with Mexico, the United States, and the Netherlands. Social security contribution must total 30 years, whereby all contributions in member states are counted. The abovementioned treaties do not apply to employment benefits alone: It is also possible to maintain retirement benefits in case of countries Argentina has signed an agreement with. If, however, an individual worked in a partner country for less than 12 months, his contribution for this period may not be included.

Finally, when it comes to healthcare benefits, emigrants have the same rights and duties as natives in the countries that signed the Multilateral Ibero-American Convention on Social Security. Additionally, emigrants are entitled to emergency care in the territories of all signatories, even in countries where they do not live.

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Argentina has done remarkably little to integrate emigrants into Argentine culture and politics. There is no explicit reference to emigrants in the constitution and no official celebration day for the emigrant community though there is an Immigration Day; September 4. Proyecto de Ley D, Ministerio de Defensa. Ley Reglamento operativo para la revalida de certificados expedidos en el exterior correspondientes a estudios superiores extranjeros exceptuando los universitarios de formacion docente, Poder Ejecutivo Nacional.

Alla Pugacheva - Million Alyh Roz (Subtítulos en español)

Poder Legislativo Nacional. Ley No Consulado General de Argentina en New York. Hague Conference on Private International Law. International Organization for Migration. Perfil migratorio de Argentina Buenos Aires: International Organization for Migration, Accessed October 28, Ministerio del Interior y Transporte. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto. Norberto Emmerich. Accessed October 30, Convenio Multilateral Iberoamericano de Seguridad Social, Buenos Aires: La Ley, Partido Justicialista.

Accessed October 21, Susana Novick. Tamara Krell. Tiempo Argentino. In the last decades, tensions within Belize have arisen between the monolingual Anglophone population and the growing numbers of Spanish-speaking immigrants. Diaspora members resent not having electoral rights abroad while Belize remains relatively open to admit immigrants and offers them a path to full citizenship.

This applies to the first and second generation. If individuals have dual or multiple nationalities, they may not exercise certain public offices: they are disqualified for membership in the House of Representatives or the Senate. It is explicitly stated that Belizeans by origin may take up another nationality. What applies to investor citizenship refers to preserving their nationality of origin when taking up the Belizean, but not to Belizeans by naturalization wanting to take up an additional nationality.

Naturalization adoption of nationality by option is only prohibited in Belize if the applicant has the nationality by origin of a country that has not recognized the independence of Belize i. Belize makes no distinction between citizenship and nationality. Nationality can only be lost by naturalized citizens if they reside abroad for at least 5 consecutive years, except if they are government employees abroad, students, or spouses of Belizeans by descent.

No difference in rights between resident and external citizens has been found other than their lack of electoral rights, which is described below. For resident citizens, registration in the electoral roll is active the first time, then lasts for 10 years. Since July 1st, , the law states that there shall be a complete re-registration of electors every ten years. Still, this is qualitatively very different from granting them external voting rights.

The electoral authority The Elections and Boundaries Department does consider proxy voting for the latter category citizens on official government duty , but does not specify how this works and says nothing about students. Political parties in Belize are not legally required to be registered entities or to adhere to any regulations.

The area of campaign financing is seriously underdeveloped. Campaign financing legislation simply does not exist, even though partisan politics and political campaigns are becoming increasingly expensive. There is growing recognition among the public and civil society that there is a dire need for campaign financing legislation.

Membership to parties is not regulated in any way by the state, but by the parties themselves. Belize has thirteen embassies, with respective consular sections around the world, a High Commission in London, and 39 honorary consulates as of Also, they have no extended services on Saturdays, no online consulates, and no mobile consulates. However, there is no information about their composition. The closest one, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belize, is headed by a Chief Executive Officer and has four directorates, none of which deals with the diaspora or seems to incorporate a unit in charge of it.

There are no programs to stimulate the sending of remittances or their channeling to other programs. The Belizean government has created the Diaspora Returnee Incentive Program,21 which foresees providing incentives for investment in Belize, but so far there is no development of any particular program to this end.

As part of the Diaspora Returnee Incentive Program, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs established programs to attract Belizeans who are considering return, especially those who have funds to invest in either housing or businesses in Belize. It also targets Belizeans who have a monthly pension or income from a guaranteed source, which they would be depositing and spending in the local economy.

Rendición / My Surrender (Buscadores de rosas)

It also foresees economic and social benefits, but it is not clear in which form. So far, the program includes, but is no limited to, tax import duties exemptions upon return. In Belize, men of 18 years of age are eligible for voluntary military service; laws allow for conscription only if volunteers are insufficient; but this has never been implemented. Being voluntary, emigrants are not obligated to serve. The Belizean state taxes citizens upon a residential principle, and there are no special taxes for emigrants. Maternity, invalidity and sickness payment are only paid to workers contributing to the welfare system through their employers in Belize, as residents.

This system is, however, quite modest and recent, covering only a small part of the population. Belize did, however, have a social security system, designed with the help of the United Nations International Labour Organization. In addition to providing pensions for retired and injured workers, the system also provided short-term benefits for sickness and maternity leave. Regarding healthcare, the situation is similar: there are no healthcare programs targeting the diaspora.

Emigrants have access to Belizean healthcare schemes in the same conditions as resident citizens only if they remain enrolled in it. Theoretically, this would allow them to enjoy healthcare if they went back home, as the system is universal and based on citizenship and residence. However it is not clear if domicile suffices as a proof of residence. There is no program for the remote support for health insurance by third parties in Belize, as the system is based on residence and is universal. The program was promoted through traditional media as well as emails and social media. Elizabeth II.

Belize Act Chapter 52, Law Revision Commissioner. Belizean Nationality Act Chapter , Income and Business Tax Act, Representation of the People Act Chapter 9, Telephone interview, June 23, National Assembly of Belize. Constitution of Belize, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed August 29, Diaspora of Belize. Elections and Boundaries Department. Embassy of Belize in Washington D. Griner, Steven, and Zovatto, Daniel, eds. From Grassroots to the Airwaves. Jones, Lloyd. Merrill, Tim. Country Studies. Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

OECD Publishing, Ramos, Adele. Ramos, Wellington. The Economist. United Democratic Party. For instance, Bolivian workers are enabled to live up to two years with the possibility of prolonging this permission, or even get an unlimited visa almost throughout the continent, and in Argentina, in addition, they have access to health, education and other social services. Only the new regulation on Bolivian nationality , which provides the possibility of re incorporating Bolivian emigrants into the Bolivian community by uncoupling the criteria Bolivian nationality and territoriality , gives a first prospect of a forthcoming crucial change in emigrant politics.

This is not only due to financial, technological and institutional limits, but also because many emigrants are still living beyond state structures, as many of them are undocumented and are used to making a living without public help. Since , Bolivian law allows dual nationality for all Bolivian citizens. The current Constitution, implemented in grants Bolivians the right to apply for further nationalities without renouncing their Bolivian nationality, just as foreigners are not required to renounce their original nationality.

The Migration Law states that naturalized citizens have the same rights as Bolivians by birth. The Bolivian Constitution establishes that children of Bolivians only 1st generation may apply for Bolivian nationality although they are born abroad. The Constitution does not establish residence abroad as a criterion for losing political rights.

These can only be lost in case of taking up arms against Bolivia, embezzling public resources, or betraying the country. There are no significant differences in citizen rights and duties for persons who reside outside Bolivia. Before the implementation of the new Constitution in , Bolivian law did not preclude non-residents from voting. At the same time, it did not offer any provision for external voting, nor financial incentives to travel back to Bolivia in order to vote in the home circumscription. The current Constitution provides the possibility for external participation in presidential and vice presidential elections and national referenda.

Non-resident Bolivians may not vote abroad for the national legislature or for regional elections. Bolivian law does not allow non-residents to stand for election in any case.