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  2. Citation Styles for "Global migration and education : school, children, and families"
  3. Children, Parents and Institutions in the Mobility Maze | CEEMR

My research across nine European countries Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland suggests smart policies — ranging from early education to, believe it or not, fashion advice — could be the difference between success and failure. Schooling is key. In France and Sweden, migrant children benefit from entering preschool by the age of three. This makes it easier for them to learn the local language, integrate into society and follow academic careers.

About a third of migrant children in France and Sweden will gain university degrees. In Germany and Austria, by contrast, schooling starts at the age of six or even seven. Students there are soon divided into academic or vocational schools, with a disproportionate number of migrants shunted on to the vocational path.


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Only about one in 10 migrant children in these countries make it to university. The policy solution is clear: we must enable more migrant children to enter school before the age of six. Classrooms also need to be mixed instead of concentrating migrants in specific schools, our study shows. Successful schooling represents the single most important factor in determining success in the workplace. In the Netherlands, according to the Ties survey we conducted , students of Turkish and Moroccan heritage who graduate from university often work in middle management or civil servant positions in education, in social work, or in the health sector.

Family support is crucial. Most of the successful children of migrants we interviewed had supportive families; parents did everything for their children to help them study. What we learned is that the children who are successful are those who live not just between cultures, but in two cultures at the same time. Dobson M. Unpacking Children in Migration Research.

Ensor M. Goulbourne H. London: Routledge. Huijsmans R. Child Migration and Questions of Agency. Development and Change 42 5 : — Kawecki I. Studia Sociologica IV 2 : — Obywatele Europy czy eurosieroty? Cracow: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Pedagogicznego. Kirova A. Adams, A.

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Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Rocznik Lubuski 34 1 : 27— Kosmalska J. Immigration and Primary Education in Ireland. Polish Children in English Schools. Institutional Challenges and Solutions. Studia Migracyjne — Przeglad Polonijny 40 3 : — Lopez Rodriguez M. Social Identities 16 3 : — Moskal M. CES Briefings No. Centre for Educational Sociology, the University of Edinburgh. Geoforum — Race, Ethnicity and Education 19 1 : — Orellana M. Social Problems 48 4 : — Portes A. The Adaptation of Migrant Children. The Future of Children 21 1 : — Millei, R. Imre eds , Childhood and Nation , pp.

London: Palgrave Macmillan. Ryan L. International Migration 51 2 : 90— Project Report. Middlesex University. Sales R. Slany K. Struzik J. Feuerstein, C. Schools are a key institution in the provision of quality education and opportunities for social inclusion for children, families, and communities to work together. However, there has to be a public and political will to offset the negative impact of destabilization that is often a by-product of the refugee experience. Since , at minimum refugees have been settled in Connecticut, with in alone cga. The refugees are assigned by the State Department and state contracts to local agencies that provide social work case management and employment services to refugees.

In FY , out of the refugees who arrived in Connecticut were resettled in Hartford. For example, the state of Connecticut is a welcoming host to refugees and has created many social inclusion initiatives through cultural and political advocacy. The current political leadership has been very empathetic to the concerns of refugees. This is in contrast to the 29 governors who have refused to host Syrian refugees. In a similar vein, Senator Richard Blumenthal of Connecticut introduced a four-point plan that would limit delays and duplication of screenings in order to assist refugees seeking entrance to the USA Berry How do schools begin to find ways to facilitate social inclusion?

It is important to realize that schools are not equipped to deal with the unique and multifaceted challenges of refugee children. However, with some retooling and training for teachers and social workers, creative ways can be developed to include families and communities in a social inclusion learning environment. Similarly, Anderson et al. According to McBrien , a predominant theme in the literature is meeting the psychosocial well-being of refugee children. To help students adapt and thrive in a new learning environment and educational system is challenging.

Many have to resume education that has been disrupted. Others are introduced to formal education for the first time and find it difficult to adjust to a rapid and foreign educational system Clark-Kasimu Guerrero and Tinkler found that many refugee children viewed education as a path toward opportunity and freedom. Strekalova and Hoot highlighted the need to educate teachers about the history and experiences of refugee children and how these inform their behaviors in school. Teachers can benefit from in-service training, strategies in teaching English as a Second Language, and education about the unique needs of refugee children.

Szente, Hoot, and Tylor provided some practical ideas for teachers, which social workers and therapists can use to advance communication and trust. Young, newly arrived children can express basic emotions such as happiness, sadness, and anger through drawings, role plays, and sign language. Smiling, arts, and dance activities also help children communicate, creating safe spaces in schools. It is vital to be aware that the educational system is the starting point for many refugee children entering the US.

The level of support they receive after they arrive in the USA can determine their long-term outcomes. Carlson et al. One became a social worker, and the other died in an encounter with the police. The authors highlight the importance of the quality of care these brothers received after resettlement in the US and how that had an impact on their trajectories. Schools can be a critical positive point of contact for refugee children, especially when they feel welcomed. The institutions can serve as places of learning and growth while providing social contacts and guidance in navigating the complexities of a new culture.

According to McBrien , education is crucial for restoring social and emotional healing. Lerner recommended that schools adopt modes of instruction that are more inclusive and supportive. Having established that the state of Connecticut is open to receiving refugees, this article will narrow its examination to Hartford, a challenging urban environment where the city has found ways in which to involve schools and communities in social inclusion participatory strategies.

Public schools in Hartford have a diverse population, including a large immigrant population. Other major cities in Connecticut, such as New Haven, Waterbury, and Bridgeport, reflect similar demographics. Since Hartford recognized that the school district is not homogenous, it has taken various social inclusion steps. For example, the Hartford school district has created a committee comprised of district policy, communication, family and community engagement teams to assist refugee families.

Each school in Hartford has a family resource center, and there is a welcoming center at the district administration building. These services address many of the needs that refugee families face when settling in Hartford and enrolling their children in the district schools. This is a particularly important effort for the families of refugee children, who often need help transitioning to the US educational system.

Catholic Charities, one of the nonprofit organizations in Hartford, resettles the vast majority of refugees in the greater Hartford area. This number may reach over the next year. Catholic Charities provides multicultural and multilingual social services that include housing, language instruction, school adjustment and tutorial assistance for children, and job training and placement. Catholic Charities coordinates social work case management services to ensure that families have guidance in all phases of the transition process.

It continues to secure funding from the Connecticut Department of Education to hire translators and tutors in the schools to ensure language access for services. However, this demand is far greater than the resources available. In the interim, clusters of students who speak similar languages are enrolled in the same schools so bilingual teachers can be hired for 20 students or more. This not only serves to ease the transition to a new culture but also to assess the academic potential of refugee children in their native language without existing language barriers.

In addition to forming its own Advisory Board, which started in , it served as the basis for the development of the Commission of Refugees and Immigration Affairs.

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The Hartford library offers citizenship and English as a second language class, online education, online high school education, math classes, and computer skills training. In , the Hartford Public Library became the first public library in the US to provide accredited citizenship and legal immigration services accredited by the Board of Immigration Appeals.

In addition, many cultural programs and exhibits are designed to be inclusive and celebrate different cultures. Cultural navigators are volunteers from the host community, trained by social workers and graduate interns to help new refugees and immigrants adjust to life in Hartford. The cultural navigators serve as mentors, linking the new arrivals to services and institutions within the local community.

For further details of the Cultural Navigator Program, see Thomas et al. In , community dialogs in one Hartford neighborhood highlighted the need to increase opportunities for residents to gather, share ideas, and collectively solve problems. The welcoming committee consists of Asylum Hill residents and stakeholders from both the refugee and receiving communities. Through this committee, a series of facilitated community focus groups with on-site native language support were held in the fall of Focus groups were organized by age and language groups: youth, Arabic and Middle Eastern languages, Bhutanese and Nepalese, African languages, and Karen with the assistance of social workers.

The results of these meetings showed keen interest in and vision for a multicultural neighborhood center to address the needs and interests of all in the community Hartford Public Library Create a means by which immigrant voices can be heard and understood, and to recognize and legitimize issues of importance to newcomers. Advise city government about the needs and status of our refugee and immigrant communities and advocate for their interests. Facilitate communication and understanding between and among the foreign born and native born residents of Hartford CRIA, The commission has advocated for refugees and undocumented residents by testifying before the city council, building coalitions, writing letters of support, drawing attention to arrival of undocumented children in the, and meeting their needs.

Many of these policy advocacy efforts are led by social workers in key positions of leadership. In , the commission created a survey to identify the needs of the refugee and immigrant communities in Hartford. Data is currently being collected, and the findings will help social service agencies and policymakers better understand the need of new refugee and immigrant arrivals. Based on existing literature and initiatives in Hartford, there is an expressed need to increase the public will to accept refugee children and families by elected officials in partnership with schools and communities.

Despite the innovative efforts described above, the state of Connecticut has much more to do to help refugee children adjust in their new country and state. The author recommends the following strategies to increase social inclusion in the schools: to enhance training for teachers and social workers in the areas of trauma, to increase outreach for parental involvement, and to develop a student peer mentoring initiative.

In the educational system, teachers spend the most time with refugee students and are in the best position to detect trauma-related behaviors. Shriberg notes that educators are not fully trained to screen and address the extensive needs of refugee students. Many refugee students who perform below grade level, pose disciplinary problems, or exhibit high-risk behaviors are viewed as discipline problems, rather than assessing them for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD.

In addition, the school community must be educated about the harms of bullying, especially for refugee children who are already traumatized. They must be able to identify, confront, and stop refugee bullying. Many schools have developed steps to prevent bullying and to create a space for children to learn without the fear of teasing, humiliation or assault. This comprehensive law, written by a social worker and a legal team, requires all schools to have a clear anti-bullying policy. Teachers need to collaborate with social workers, guidance counselors and other mental health providers to specifically help screen children suffering and coping with trauma.

Almost all of those surveyed wanted to know best practices for teaching refugee students, including practical teaching techniques and adaptations of curriculum.

Citation Styles for "Global migration and education : school, children, and families"

Teachers need guidance on how to best educate refugee students and how to gain access to the many resources available from other similarly situated educators throughout the world. Training teachers about screening for trauma, enhancing cultural competency, understanding the implications of these issues for developing curriculum, and working with other professionals to embrace the strengths and challenges of refugee students are necessary action steps to ensure quality education through social inclusion approaches.

Continuing education and training for school social workers is needed to increase their capacity in trauma-related counseling, advocacy, and policy development. These social workers can provide trauma-informed practice and help students develop their ability to manage distress and to enhance their capacity for increased daily functioning Knight According to Weine , service providers in the refugee field need to find techniques that help refugees of war trauma, those traumatized by forced migration, as well as those affected by other contextual variables, such as discrimination, or gender and power differentials.

While trauma-related services are already covered in social work training, school districts need to provide a continuum of training. White stresses the importance of training mental health workers in effective methods to treat clients who are traumatized, as well as training in secondary traumatic stress disorders for themselves. It is important that social workers avoid suffering from compassion fatigue and remain helpful to their clients. The research consistently demonstrates that the academic achievement of all students whose parents were involved in their education was significantly higher than those whose parents were not Jeynes The types of involvement that had the most impact were parents reading with their children, communicating with teachers, attending school events, being active in the PTA, volunteering at school, and supervising school work at home Bridging Refugee Youth and Children Services BYRCS For parents of refugee children, research shows that additional barriers exist.

Such factors make educational inclusion efforts for refugee children more complex. In many cultures, teachers are revered and are treated as experts in their field. BRYCS makes some of the following recommendations that could assist in involving the parents of refugee children: hire an interpreter, or find one from an NGO, translate as many documents as possible, and provide interpretation at school events rather than burdening children with this task. To offset some of the barriers, BRYCS recommends offering to provide translators for any meeting with refugee parents; choosing vocabulary that is easy to translate; and encouraging parents to read in their native language.

School personnel, whenever possible, should speak to parents in person or by phone, reducing the amount of memos sent home.

Children, Parents and Institutions in the Mobility Maze | CEEMR

Since transportation and child care can be barriers for many refugee families, schools can help by providing these services where there are school events; and be flexible about when meeting times are scheduled. Another outreach initiative that a refugee parental involvement plan BRYCS might implement is to create cultural liaison programs that bridge the gap between families and the school. A peer mentoring program to promote communication between refugee students and other students in the school will enhance collaboration, communication and deeper understanding of diversity.

The peer mentor should volunteer to be a mentor, and would help the refugee student practice English, do homework, teach him or her the norms of the school, share a table in a lunchroom, introduce him or her to extra-curricular activities, and protect him or her from any bullying Mtethwa-Sommers and Kisiera, After the first refugee students have begun to acculturate, the older refugee students would also make excellent peer partners for new incoming refugees, particularly when the incoming students do not know English. MENTOR also stresses that bilingual and bicultural mentors offer unique and promising opportunities for non-English speaking immigrant youth.

Children have a right to quality education and to actively participate in their learning in a safe and inclusive environment.